Main

Understanding Computers and Cognition, Winograd& Flores

The role of tradition
The rationalistic tradition (RT)
Language, truth and the world
Decision making and problem solving
Understanding and being
Cognition as a biological phenomenon
Language, listening and commitment
Computers and representation
Computation and intelligence
Understanding language
Management and conversation
Using computers: A direction for design

Ecodynamics, Boulding, K. E.

The universe as a stereo movie
Physical dynamics
Population dynamics
Ecological dynamics
Biological evolution
Societal evolution
The threat system
Exchange - a social organizer
The integrative system
History - an evolutionary interpretation
Power in society
Dialectics and evolution
Evaluative change
Evolutionary dynamics of religion and ethics

Object-Oriented Analysis, Peter Coad & Edward Yourdon, 1990

Abstraction
System analysis
Association
Attributes
Class
Data flow approach
Encapsulation
Functional decomposition
Information modeling
Inheritance
Object
Services

 

Critical Issues In Information Systems Research - Index of concepts 

The Boehm Model
Information systems development methodology
The evolutionary design
Expert systems
Information systems development
The life cycle approach 
Object systems
The Putnam model
 
 

D.E. Avison: Information systems development

Applications development
Business Analysis
Conceptual model/schema
Conventional Systems Analysis
Data analysis
Data dictionaries
Database Administrator (DBA)
The Database Approach
Database machines
Database Management systems (DBMS)
Distributed databases
Entity-relationship model
Feasibility study
Information model
Logical model/schema
Modelling
Multi-media systems
Normalisation
Object-oriented techniques
Physical model/schema
Prototyping
Relational Algebra
Review and maintenance
Relational theory
Rich picture
Root definitions
Systems analysis
Systems design
Systems implementation
Systems investigation
Fourth generation, Case and other tools

 

Schuler, D. & Namioka, A. (Eds), Participatory Design: Principles and Practises

The hazards of leaving out the users
Towards participatory design in the United States
Scandinavian design
Achieving cooperative system design
Obstacles to participatory design
Ethnographic field methods
Cooperative design
Contextual inquiry
Reciprocal evolution
ETHICS

Bjerknes, G. & Dahlbom, B. et al (eds)

The Authors
Introduction
The Lab Case
The Supervisor Case
The Q - A Case
The University Case
How to Handle the Four Cases and Why
Organizational Competence in System Development
Can Networks Make an Organization?
Systems Development in the Swedish Civil Service
Analyzing Organizations in System Development
On Organizational Competence in System Development. An Activity Approach
Using Technology to Understand Organizations
Transaction Types and Information System
Creating Systems by Dialogue
Surfacing Organizational Competence
A Cultural Perspective
Simulation as a Learning Technique
Between Micro- and Megalomania
 

Kuhn

Normal science
Scientific revolutions
Paradigm
The developmental pattern of mature science
Shared paradigms
Scientific inquiry
How paradigms are created
Discipline
The principal problems of normal science
Why do research
Puzzle solving
To discover what's known in advance
The relation between rules, paradigms, and normal science
Paradigm change
Anomalies and paradigms
Crisis
Multiple theoretical constructions
Crisis as the essential tension in scientific research
Responding to crisis
To evoke a crisis
Blurring of a paradigm
The close of crisis
Change of profession
Emergence of a new paradigm
Why a paradigm change is a revolution
Revolutions as changes of world view
The invisibility of revolutions
The resolution of revolutions
Paradigm-testing
Candidate for a new paradigms -the process
Progress of science
Characteristics of a scientific community
 

Avison & Fitzgerald

The systems approach
Object-Oriented systems development
Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)
Prototyping
Modelling and Techniques
Rich pictures
Root definitions
Conceptual models
Entity modelling
Normalisation
Data flow diagram (DFD)
Entity life cycle
Structure diagrams
Matrices
Tools
Project management tools
Database management systems (DBMS)
Data dictionary systems (DDS)
Systems repositories
Drawing tools
CASE tools
Methodologies
The Tradional Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Structured Analysis, Design and Implementation of information Systems (STRADIS)
Yourdon Systems Method (YSM)
Information Engineering (IE)
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM)
Merise
Jackson Systems Development (JSD)
Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA)
Information Systems work and Analysis of Changes (ISAC)
Effective Technical and Human Implementation of Computer-based Systems (ETHICS)
Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)
Multiview
Process innovation
Rapid Application Development (RAD)

 

Rumbaugh

Abstract Classes
Advanced dynamic Modelling Concepts
Aggregation
Advanced Link and associations
Analysis
Breaking a System into Subsystems
Data Flow Diagrams
Events and States
Generalisation as Extension and Restriction
Generalisation and Inheritance
Grafical Notation Aggregation
Grafical Notation Association
Grafical Notation class
Grafical Notation Generalisation/Inheritance
Grafical Notation for Link Attributes
Grafical Notation Multiplicity Associations
Grafical Notation for Trenary Associations
Links and Associations
Modelling as an Design Technique
Multiple Inheritance
Object Design
Objects and Classes
Operation
Programming Style
Choosing Software Control Implementation
Specifying Operations
System Design
 

Internet

Overview
The Internet History
-
Getting Connected
- Client/ Server - Names for computers
-
Naming Conventions
-
How It Works
-
Archie
-
E-mail
-
Finger/ WHOIS/ netfind/ X.500 : Finding People
-
FTP
-
Gopher
-
Network News/ Discussion Lists/ FAQs
-
Telnet
-
WAIS
-
Veronica
-
The World Wide Web (WWW)
-
Free/ Commercial On-line services - Super-Sites - Pay-per-search Sites
-
E-mail protocols
-
Internet Associated Organizations
-
Internet related terms
-
What is allowed on the Internet?

C. West Churchman

The systems approach
Efficiency in systems
Thinking about systems

The input-output approach
Management Information Systems

Time
Planning
Counterplanning
Anti-planners

Jacobsen et al: OOSE

OOSE
System development as an industrial process
Object-orientation
Object
Class and Instance
Inheritance
Polymorphism
System development characteristics
Analysis
Construction
Test
Architecture
Method
Process
Tool
The system life cycle
Model
Requirements model
Analysis model
Design model
Implementation model
Test model
Actor
Use case
Use case driven design
Subsystem
Component
Block
Object-oriented system development
Object-oriented programming
Objectory
Database specialization
Real-time specialization
Managing object-oriented software engineering
 

Ehn: Work-oriented design of computer artifacts

Abstract
Design Philosophy
The Cartesian Approach and Beyond
The Heideggerian Approach
The Marxist Approach
The Wittengensteinian Approach
The Art and Science of Designing Computer Artifacts
"The Science of Design of the Artificial"
Systems Design to Design of Computer Artifacts
Other Alternatives for Design of Computer Artifacts
Designing for Democracy at Work
The DEMOS Project
The UTOPIA Project
 

Checkland: Systems thinking, systems practice

The subject of systems
Subject
System
Open system
Closed system
Organised complexity
Systems approach
Science
Systems thinking
Emergence and hierarchy
Communication and control
Systems practice
Real-world problem
Hard systems thinking
Hard problem
Systems engineering
Systems analysis
Soft systems thinking
Soft problem
Human activity system
Methodology in general
Soft methodology outline
Soft methodology, Stages 1 & 2
Soft methodology, Stage 3
Soft methodology, Stage 4
Soft methodology, Stage 5
Soft methodology, Stage 6 & 7
 

Jenny Preece:Human-Computer Interaction

Contributions from different kinds of sciences
A cognitive perspective
Visual perception
Colours
Icons
Focusing attention on the interface
Automatic/controlled processing
Memory
Recognition versus recall
Mental models
Interface metaphors
Conceptual models
Learning
Errors
Input devices
Output devices
Menus
Practical aspects for direct manipulation
Window systems
Guidelines for designing HCI
Designing HCI
Involving users
 

Bäck: Datorisering och datapolitik

Different way to look at the computer  
To study a community phenomena  
To understand computerizing  
The semiconductor  
Computerizing in larger perspective 
The computer   
Computer history
Computer future 
Computer and electronic industry 
User area 
User 
The effects by computerising in companies 
Personal number and the principles of public access to official records 
Personal records, personal integrity and the law of computer
Data and public Computer security
Computers and life of workers  
Computerizing and democracy
Computer politic after Second World War  
Main actors and their point of view 
Political parties and their opinion in computer policy  
Unions and employers opinion about computerizing
 

Old files

Links by Author

Kerstin Anér
Argyris, Schon
Bansler
Brandinger, Norrby
Dahlbom, Matthiasen
Couger, Knapp
Davies, Olsen
Greenbaum et al
Dreyfuss & Dreyfuss
Earl
Feyerabend
Johnson, Scholes
Khoshofian
Langefors
Mintzberg
Mumford: Ethics
Mumford, Fitzgerald et al
Naur
Nurminen
Randlesome
Shneiderman
Sprague & Watson
SSADM
Weizenbaum
 
 

Anér

Abuse of information
Assertions
Automation
Balance of power
Over-believe
Dependency
Centralising
Computer versus humans
Supervision
Integrity
Data collection
The data law
Personality
The education spiral
E-mail
Emotionallity
Exactness
Fear
Feudalism
The work situation
The global village
Hardware and software
Personal identity
The power of knowledge
The personal integrity
Computer phobia
Segmentation
Language
The losers
Moral demands
Nerve net
Unemployment
Power
Suppression of needs
Protecting information
Registers
Registration
The rightfulness of information
Computers in school
Stealing and sabotage
The computerised world
The computerisation and the change of work

Argyris & Schon

Attribution theory
Cognitive balance theories
Defensive reasoning
Double-loop learning
Future organizational requirements
The implementation gap on MIS
Interpersonal behavior categories
Maps for action
Matrix organization
Information at different organizational level
Organizational change
Organizational defensive
Organizational learning
Single-loop learning
Social evalution theory
Theory of action
Theories-in-use

Bansler

Acceptance of changes
Collective approach
Computer networks - history
Systems development - history
Technology determination
The first computers
The Information theoretical approach
Börje Langefors
Methods - history in Scandinavia
Rolf Høyer
Emerging systems science
The socio-technical approach
Systems development - definition
Perspective of management
Taylorism
"Theoretical analysis of Information Systems"
The conflict and harmony perspectives
Computers impact on work

Brandinger, Norrby

Building better information systems
What is a system (in the aspect of dataprocessing)?
Decisionsystems
Planning for a system.
Organization of the systems work.
The systems division (AR-division).
Organization of systems project.
Problems analysis in systems development.
ESU
Modeling the dialogue.
The systems work.
The preliminary investigation.
Study of the goal.
Study of the information.
Study of the dataprocessing.
Study of the system.
The system's main parts.
Systems package.
Preliminary calculation.
A.D.P (Automatic Data Processing) security.
Systems control.
Systems manual.
Systems introduction.
Starting the system.
Follow up.

Dahlbom, Matthiasen

The computer
Church-Turing thesis
Algorithm
Rationality
The mechanistic worldview
The bureaucratic worldview
The organic worldview
Information
Data
Knowledge
Concepts
Perspectivism
Systems development
Hard system thinking
Soft system thinking
Dialectic system thinking
Stepwise refinement
Prototyping
Interventionism
Culture

Couger, Knapp

Gridcharting
Second Generation System Analysis Techniques
Third Generation System Analysis Techniques
Fourth Generation System Analysis Techniques
Before System Analysis techniques
Decision tables
ANSI standard flowcharting
First Generation System Analysis Techniques
Information algebra
Information System Design and Optimisation System (ISDOS)
Problem statement analyser
System Analysis Techinques definition
Systems optimaisation and design alogrithm (SODA)
Study organisation plan (SOP)
Time automated grid (TAG)
Accurately Defined Systems (ADS)
Problem Statement Language

Davis, Olsen

Management Information System (MIS)
The MIS Concept
Requirement for Information system
Data Independence
Logical models of data
Physical models of data
Transaction processing
Decision-making process
Behavioural models (of the decision maker)
Information
The human as an information processor
Human Cogniton and Learning
System Concepts
Planning
Information System
Organisational Structure
Management Theories
Information System Plan
Information Requirements
The Database Approach
User Interface
Life Cycle Approach
Prototyping Approach
The Fifth Generation Computer

Greenbaum et al

Scandinavian School
The new utopians
Cartesian Principles
User Controlled Problem Solving
CSCW
Human Perspectives
Lifecycle of changes
Workplace Language (Linguistic Concept)
Video in Design
Workplace Language
Workplace Cultures (Linguistic Concept)
Organizational Culture
Organizational Sociology
Design as Philosophy
Future Workshops
Mock-Ups
Storyboardning Prototyping
Design-by-Doing
Tailoring
Properties of Adaptable Systems
Participation Prerequisties
UTOPIA-project

Dreyfuss, Dreyfuss

Artificial Intelligence, AI
Computer as tool
Computer as tutor
Computer as tutee
Decision Support System, DSS
Deliberative Rationality
Deskilling
Detached Deliberation
Expert System, ES
Holistic template matching
Inference engines
Information Processing
Know-how
Knowledge acquisition problem
Know-that
Logic machines
Management
Skill acquisition model

Earl

Earl Micheal J.
Nature of IT
Strategic advantage by IT
Information Management (IM) Strategy
Multiple methodology
IT Strategy Architecture
Controlling IT activities
Organizing IT activities
Stages of growth model

Mumford:Ethics

Adaption
The change process  
Consultative, representative and consensus participation
Diagnosing efficiency needs
ETHICS
Evaluation
The five "fits"
Future needs
System implementation
Integration, Leavitt´s model
The four morale stages
Objectives of the ETHICS method
Objectives setting and attainment
The social system
Participation and systems design
The problems of using a participative design approach
Resistance to change
Specific job satisfaction objectives
Measuring job satisfaction
Setting objectives for the new system
Socio-technical systems design
Stabilization
Influence
Traditional values
Reasons for user participation
What is participation?
Why have participation?

Mumford, Fitzgerald et al (IS Research)

Choose and Use of Methods
Contextual Analysis
Contextual Analysis Benefits
Contextual Analysis Quality
Contextualism
Formism
Hermeneutic Problem
Horizontal and Vertical Componenets of Contextual Analysis
Interest Groups
Johari's Window
Lewin's Model
Mechanism
Multiplicative Corroborations
Natural-Science Research-Methods Dominance
Objectivity
Organicism
Phenomenologic Approach Advantages
Phenomenology
Problems With Traditional Research Methods
Quantification and Qualification
Re-definition of Scientific Research Goals
Researchers Ideal
Self-understanding
Structural Corroborations
Traditional Science and Human Beeing
World Hypotheses

Feyerabend

Ad hoc hypothesis
Epistemological anarchy
Principle of Anything Goes
Consistency condition
Counterinduction
Critical rationalism
Logical empiricism
Pluralism
Science
Law of uneven development

Johnson & Scholes

Strategy
Strategic management
Analysing the environment
Understanding the nature of the environment
Auditing environmental influences
Structural analysis of the competitive environment
Identifying the organisations competitive position
Analysing resources and strategic capability
The resource audit
Value chain analysis
Comparative analysis
Assessing the balance of resources
Identification of key issues
Culture and stakeholder expectations
Strategic options
Generic strategies
Develop generic strategies
Methods to develop strategic directions
Strategy evalutation
Assessing the suitability of strategy
Screening options
Feasability and acceptability
Selection of strategy
Planning and allocating resources
Resource planning at the corporate level
Resource planning at the business level
Preparing resource plans
The simple structure
The functional structure
The multidivisional structure
The holding company structure
The matrix structure
Central vs devolution
Organisational configuration
Management systems
Managing strategic change

Khoshofian

Abstract data types
Classes
Class inheritance
Concurrency control
Constraints
DataBase Modelilng
Dynamic binding
Intelligent databases
Intergrity constraints
Metaclasses
Multiple inheritance
Object identity
Object inheritance
Object-oriented databases
Object orientation
Object Oriented programming languages
Overloading
Performance in Object-oriented databases
Persistence in Object-oriented databases
Parametric polymorphism
Query optimisation
Querying in Object-oriented databases
Recovery
Transactions in Object-oriented databases
Object-oriented User Interfaces
Version management

Langefors

Algebraic Tools for Describing Systems
A Sketch of a Basic Theory of Systems Analysis
Common Faults in Systems Design Analysis
Component Problems of Information System
Data and Information
Different Kinds of Systems Study
Data Structure of an Information System
Elementary Computation
Elementary Files (e-files)
The Elementary Message (e-message)
Formalization of Information System Design
The Fundamental Principle of Systems Work
Developing Efficient Information Systems
General Systems Theory
General and Special Properties of Systems Problems
The Infological Equation Information System
Completeness Theorem of Information Precedence Analysis
Information and System Control
Information Values as an Information System Design Parameter
The Meaning of Information whitin a System
Mathematical Systems Theory as a System
Needs for a Formal Systems Theory
The Relativity Principle for Systems
Definition of a System
The suitable Number of Subsystems in a Subsystem
System, Subsystem, Parts and Boundaries
Structured Types of Systems
Network Types of Systems
Cellular Types of Systems
Planar Types of Systems
Structural Systems Theory
The Systems Analysis Approach
Systems Engineering
The Economic Quantity of Information
Two Tasks of an Information System
Operative Information
Directive Information
The Value of Directive Information
Usfulness of our Concise Definition of Systems
The Value of Information in a System

Mintzberg

Adhocracy
Five Coordinating mechanisms
Decentralization in fives
The divisionalized form
Information and decisionpower flow
Machine bureaucracy
The organizations in five parts
Professional bureaucracy
Simple structure

Naur

Data
Data representations
Sequential Data Process
Variable
Flow chart
Operator
Execution Times
Structured programming
Desk-testing
Computer-aided program testing
Testing of Subprograms
Redundancy
Data Transmission
Decision Table
Numerals
Computer Numbers
Application Numbers
The processes of searching files
Simple search
Scatter storage search
Binary search
Generative syntax description
Metalanguages
Nested structures
Explicit Data Association
Storage Allocation
Binary Tree Search
Conversations between Man and Computer
Auxiliary Stores
Block
Access time
Working Store
Concurrent Operation
Maintenance slip
Large File Design
Searching in Large Files
Mulitpass Processing
Development of Large Data Systems
Documentation of Large Data Systems
Mathematical numbers
Digital Data for Humans and for Computers
The ISO 7-bit Character Set
Limitations of Data Processing
Avoiding Go To Statements
Data Holding Abilities
Redundancy Checking
Variable-Length Representations
Internal Representation of Properties and States
Levels of Analysis of Character Strings
Computer integer representation
Floating-point representations
Hash Transformation

Nurminen

Concequences of information technology
Habitualization
The humanistic perspective
Ideal types
Institutionalization
Types of knowledge
Problems with user participation
Difficulties that can appear in a new information system
Prototyping
The socio-technical perspective
The systems-theoretical perspective
Tacit konwledge
User participation in system development

Randlesome

Black economy
Business culture
Business environment
Collective bargaining
Demographic trends
Economy factors
EC, single market responses
EMS - European Monetary System
Entrepreneurship
Environmental consciousness
Financial factors
Gemu
Government involvement
Guestworkers
Industrial democracy
Infrastructure
Japanese investment
Joint venture
Law/Legal factors
Life-long learning
Migration
Nationalization
Privatization
Short-termism
Trade unions
Vocational training

Shneiderman

Human Factors of Interactive Software
Design Goals
Motivation for Human Factors in Design
Accommodation of Human Diversity
Menu Selection
Semantic Organisation
Single menus
Linear sequences and multiple menus
Tree-structured menu
Item presentation
Menu Screen Design
Selection Mechanisms
Form-Fill-in
Command Languages
Response Time and Display Rate
System Messages, and Screen Design
Design of user-interface
Guidelines documents
Direct Manipulation
Rapid prototyping tools and usability laboratories and iterative testing
Conceptual level
GOMS model
Naming and abbreviations
Predictive
Syntactic level
Taxonomy
Explantory
Semantic level
Keystroke-level model
Lexical level

Sprague & Watson

Adaptive Design
Benchmark
Cognitive Style
Definition of DSS
Development and Use of Analytical Models
Development of DSS
Development Time
DSS
DSS Applications
DSS Criteria
A DSS Corporate Strategy
DSS Developmental Techniques and Procedures
DSS Technology
Evolving Roles in DSS
Expert Systems and DSS
Expert Systems as a Component of a DSS
Framework
Group Decision Support Software
Group Decision Support System
Key Capabilities of a Smart Modeling System
Limitations of Current Modeling Systems
Management of data in DSS projects
Managing the DSS as an Organizational Entity
Motivation for DSS Development
Planning and Organizing for DSS
Review and Control of DSS Development
Selecting an Appropriate DSS Language
Systems Components of a DSS
The Problem with Using Cognitive Style
User-Builder Interactions
User Involvement in Development
Value Analysis
What is a Decision Support System

SSADM

Micro SSADM
Maintenance SSADM
Phase 1 Feasibility
Stage 01 Problem definition
Stage 02 Project identification
Phase 2 Systems analysis
Stage 1 Analysis of systems operations and current problems
Stage 2 Specification of requirements
Stage 3 Selection of technical options
Phase 3 Systems design
Stage 4 Data design
Stage 5 Process design
Stage 6 Physical design
Dataflow diagrams
Logical data structuring
Entity life histories
Dialogue design
Relational data analysis
SSADM

Weizenbaum

Tools changed peoples life
Computer dependence
ELIZA
The scientists world
Mechanical machines
Electronic machine
Language and knowledge
Code standard
Gates
Memory
Program
The compulsive programmer - the hacker
The working programmer
Hacker
Science
Human computers
Theory
Computer as tools
Links and komplexity
Artificial intelligence
Computer programs
Understandable computers
Attempt to build an artificial computer
Human contra computer